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Thursday, October 30, 2014

Mohd Shubhi  /  30.10.14  /    /  No comments
Light-trap method for pest control gaining popularity in Bangladesh now. This eco-frienddly pest management system is an alternative to pesticide control. It is getting popular among farmers in Bangladesh.

Eco-friendly light-trap

Light-trap, an environmentally sound method for detecting harmful insects, is helping hundreds of farmers in different areas of the district during this ongoing aman season.

The farmers set the light-traps at night with lantern, charger light or electric bulb and place a pot with detergent or kerosene mixed with water under the light. The light attracts the insects that die after falling into the homemade insecticide.

If existence of harmful insects is found, experts advise the farmers on an effective pest control.

"In 43 blocks under 10 unions within my jurisdiction, farmers did not have to use any pesticide so far this year because they did not detect any harmful insects in the paddy fields through the light-trap method," said Mahbubul Alam, Muktagachha upazila agriculture officer.

Officials of the Department of Agriculture Extension (DAE) said they have introduced the programme throughout the district to detect the harmful insects in the aman fields and use the insecticides accordingly to save the crops.

The low-cost method is also helpful for maintaining ecological balance in the fields, they said, adding that the farmers are extremely enthusiastic in using the method because they are reaping benefit from it.

Control usage of pesticide

Normally farmers apply costly insecticides in the paddy fields indiscriminately, killing all the insects including the useful insects, and causing a definite environmental degradation.

But when the harmful insects are detected through the light-trap method, they can save money by applying a cheaper insecticide to kill that particular pest as per the experts' suggestion, said the officials.

Around 2500 light-traps have already been set up in 510 blocks under 12 upazilas of the district. 

"Light-trap programme has been introduced in the district over the past few years to help the farmers manage pest effectively with low cost. This year we are giving more emphasis on the programme,” said Suresh Chandra Basak, deputy director of DAE.

"During September and October every year, farmers face serious pest attack and they have to spend more money to rid paddy fields of all insects. With the light-trap we can find the culprit insect and take proper pest control measure, which is much cheaper and environment-friendly,” he added.

This method has reduced indiscriminate use of pesticides by 50 percent as farmers' response has been very positive, said the official, adding that the farmers are also learning to identify useful insects in the paddy fields.

"I became familiar with light-trap method for the first time this year. This will encourage the farmers and boost aman production,” said Molin Chandra Das, a farmer at Shatrashia of Kumargata union in Muktagachha.

Farmers in Kalapara Upazila

Many farmers in Kalapara upazila under the district are using low-cost ‘light trap’ method to control pests in their aman paddy fields. The environment-friendly method is gaining popularity especially among poor and marginal farmers as it brings better result than costly insecticides.

Framers hung a hurricane with a stick in one corner of the field and put a bucket full of water under the hurricane after the evening. Different types of pests are attracted to the light, fall into the water and die.

“This year I learnt the process of using ‘light trap’ to control pests. Now I am using the cheap and easy method to check pests in my aman paddy field and hope to get better yield this season,” said Manik Mridha, a marginal farmer to Tiakhali village under Kalapara upazila.

Local NGO Wave Foundation provided training to 60 marginal farmers of Nilganj and Tiakhali unions under the upazila on the use light trap to save their paddy from pest.

Seeing the success, many others are getting encouraged to use the method. Anisur Rahman, upazila co-ordinator for the NGO, said, “Under a project funded by the German government, we provided training to 60 marginal farmers in the upazila on pest control by using light trap. It is environment friendly and has no bad effects.”

“We are encouraging farmers to use the process to control pests on their fields as it is easy to use and cheap. It contributes to integrated pest control management,” said Md Moshiur Rahman, upazila agriculture officer.

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Mohd Shubhi  /  28.10.14  /    /  No comments
Did you know? Bats make up a quarter of all mammal species on the earth. Due to “bat lore” and because they are only active at night, bats have become the victims of some pretty tall tales.

They are not blind or dirty, nor do they get caught in ladies’ hair. Also, much like other mammals, less than half of 1 percent of all bats contracts rabies.

Seventy percent of bats consume insects, sharing a large part of natural pest control. There are also fruit-eating bats; nectar-eating bats; carnivorous bats that prey on small animals, frogs, lizards, birds, fish-eating bats; and probably most famously, the blood-sucking vampire bats, native to South America.
bats are our freind and highly beneficial for insect control

Bats are also valuable in medical research, contributing to the development of navigational aids for the blind. Not only are bats highly beneficial for insect control, they pollinate fruit flowers, disperse seeds in tropical rainforests and are an important source for fertilizer.

A single little brown bat can eat up to 1,000 mosquitoes in a single hour, and is one of the world’s longest-lived mammals for its size, with a life span of almost 40 years. While some bat populations number in the millions, others are dangerously low or are in decline.

Bats can be found almost anywhere in the world, except the polar regions and extreme deserts. Bats find shelter in caves, crevices, tree cavities and buildings. Some species are solitary, while others form colonies of more than a million individuals.

Some bats have evolved a highly sophisticated sense of hearing. They emit sounds that bounce off of objects in their path, sending echoes back to the bats. From the echoes, the bats can then determine the size of the objects, how far away they are, how fast they are traveling and even their texture … all in a split second.

A baby bat is called a pup. The gestation period for bats is from 40 days to six months and the larger bats have longer gestation periods, with the litter size normally being only one pup.

At birth, a pup weighs up to 25 percent of its mother’s body weight, which is like a human mother giving birth to a 31-pound baby.

Ouch! The babies are cared for in maternity colonies, where the females congregate to bear and raise the young. The father bats don’t help raise the pups.

When our oldest son was a little boy, he brought a bat in to the Bulletin to show Jim a bat he had caught. It kind of cleared the place of all our lady customers.

Well, that’s about the end of my limited bat knowledge … they really aren’t all that bad, but I still don’t think I could strike up a relationship with one. source

Monday, October 27, 2014

Mohd Shubhi  /  27.10.14  /    /  No comments
You might ask a question on how to choose the right pest control provider. Belo is an advice given by Technical manager at National Pest Control, UAE.

Most of the times the idea of choosing the right pest control provider is the same regardless whether you are in UAE or you are in Malaysia.
How to choose the right pest control provider

"It's better to be safe than sorry by making a few basic checks"
Pest control services have become so common these days. Everyone of us at some point in time has used the services of pest control operators to protect our health and property.

Yet we know very little about the subject and few are able to make an informed decision about choosing the right pesticides or service providers.

Here are a few basic steps that should help you make the right decision:

  • Ask for the company’s professional license; ensure they are registered and approved by the respective emirate municipalities. Only registered and approved companies are legally allowed to provide pest control service. 
  • A relatively safe product can become dangerous in the hands of an untrained PCO! Ensure the operator is trained and licensed. In Dubai, the pest control section tests and licenses individual operators, ask for their valid individual licence. 
  • Ask for Ministry of Environment & Water (MEW) approval, MSDS and label of the pesticide(s) the company intends to use. Just because a chemical is safe or green does not mean its non-toxic. 
  • Do a background check to ensure the company’s years of experience and presence in all emirates. Companies with handsome experience, knowledge and versatility can provide safe, effective and timely service. 
  • Check if the company is ISO-certified. ISO certification indicates the company provides quality service. 
For a commercial property, make sure a survey is conducted to highlight the pest issues, its source, cause and solutions. source

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Mohd Shubhi  /  22.10.14  /    /  No comments
Mungkin ramai yang percaya pest control hanya diperlukan setakat untuk mengawal serangga dan makhluk perosak di premis atau tempat anda menginap sahaja.

Tapi banyak juga kejadian yang berlaku menunjukkan bahawa pest control perlu selain daripada mengawal serangan serangga dan makhluk perosak, ia juga mampu selamatkan nyawa dan selamatkan juga perniagaan anda.

Memang betul orang gunakan khidmat pest control untuk mengawal serangan serangga dan makhlk perosak. Tak ada orang yang sanggup kongsikan semua makanan mereka dengan tikus yang berlari ke sana-sini dalam rumahnya.

Tak ada orang yang suka anak-anaknya bermain dengan lipas yang berbau busuk seperti najis di dalam rumah mereka. Dan tak ada orang yang sanggup lihat anak-anak atau diri mereka digigit binatang berbisa seperti semut api atau lipan bara.

Pest control selamatkan nyawa dan perniagaan

Namun begitu, ada lagi keutamaan dan kelebihan menggunakan khidmat pest control di tempat penginapan anda atau di pejabat atau tempat perniagaan anda. Cuba baca cerita berikut di bawah:

Wanita mati ketika tidur di dalam rumahnya

Ada satu kejadian di Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Seorang wanita bernama Rebecca Van Bibber yang berumur 55 tahun pergi melawat rumah anak lelakinya.

Ketika dia sedang tidur di salah satu bilik rumah anaknya, sebatang pokok telah tumbang menimpa rumah tersebut. Dan lebih malang lagi ia tumbang betul-betul pada tempat wanita tadi tidur.

Akibatnya wanita malang itu mati di tempat kejadian. Dilaporkan bukan saja wanita itu meninggal dunia, malah seekor anjing yang dipelihara oleh tuan rumah juga turut terkorban.

Siasatan ke atas kejadian menunjukkan pokok itu tumbang angkara kerosakan terusk yang dilakukan oleh anai-anai pada bantang pokok. Serangan anai-anai memang senyap sunyi atk dapat dikesan. Anda hanya tahu apabila pokok tumbang dan malapetaka menimpa.

Satu keluarga terpaksa keluar berpindah dari rumah

Satu lagi kejadian berlaku di Weldon Spring, Missouri. Satu keluarga telah berpindah masuk ke rumah baru yang baru mereka beli.

Mereka dapati rumha itu telah diserang oleh banyak labah-labah merbahaya. Mereka sangkakan satu rawatan pembersihan mudah dapat selesaikan semua masalah tersebut.

Tapi rupa-rupanya ia bukanlah semudah itu. Kerja pencucian rumah itu tidak dapat menghapuskan labah-labah yang telah bersembunyi di berbagai tempat dan ruang yang tersembunyi.

Kecewa dengan apa yang berlaku mereka telah saman penjual dan nasib baik kes itu telah dimenangi oleh mereka dan dibayar ganti rugi sebanyak $472,110.

Namun begitu, syarikat insurance mereka tidak mahu membiayai rawatan serangga dan makhluk perosak yang perlu dilakukan terhadap rumah tersebut. Binatang merayap labah-labah itu mesti dihapuskan terlebih dahulu sebelum rumah dapat diduduki.

Akhirnya mereka sekeluarga terpaksa berpindah dan keluar saja dari rumah yang telah mereka beli tersebut.

Perniagaan kena tutup akibat serangga penyakit

Dalam industri makanan, kebersihan adalah perkara yang paling utama perlu diambil kira. Sebuah restoran makanan Cina telah ditemui kotor apabila sebanyak 120 ekor lipas berada di dalam restoran itu.

Akibat daripada penemuan sebanyak 120 ekor lipas di dalam restoran itu, pihak berkuasa telah keluarkan notis penutupan restoran dengan serta merta.

Kedai makan itu hanya dibenarkan untuk beroperasi semula sehinggalah mereka berjaya menunjukkan lipas sudah tidak ada lagi bermaharaja lela di dalam kedai mereka. Penutupan itu membuat taukehnya mengalami kerugian wang dan juga sokongan pelanggan.

Dapatkan khidmat pest control segera

Dari cerita di atas, ternyata pest control bukan saja dapat jauhkan anda daripada serangan serangga dan makhluk perosak, malah dengan pest control anda mungkin dapat selamatkan nyawa dan perniagaan anda yang amat berharga.

Oleh itu dapatkan khidmat pest control daripada syarikat yang berlesen dan bertauliah di sekitar tempat anda tinggal. Pencegahan sentiasa jauh lebih baik untuk anda. Untuk dapatkan khidmat pest control di sekitar Shah Alam dan Petaling Jaya, anda boleh hubungi Izam 012-2067 357

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Mohd Shubhi  /  21.10.14  /    /  No comments
The conclusions of a new meta-analysis of the systemic pesticides neonicotinoids and fipronil confirm that they are causing significant damage to a wide range of beneficial invertebrate species and are a key factor in the decline of bees.

Concern about the impact of systemic pesticides on a variety of beneficial species has been growing for the last 20 years but the science has not been considered conclusive until now.
Systemic Pesticides Pose Global Threat to Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Undertaking a full analysis of all the available literature (800 peer reviewed reports) the Task Force on Systemic Pesticides - a group of global, independent scientists - has found clear evidence of harm, a threat to environment similar to that posed by the banned DDT and many of the organophosphate pesticides made illegal in recent years.

The science has progressed to the stage where it is now sufficient to trigger regulatory action and have suggested a global phase out of the products.

Intro to neonicotinoids

Unlike other pesticides, which remain on the surface of the treated foliage, systemic pesticides are taken up by the plants vascular system and transported to all the tissues (leaves, flowers, roots and stems, as well as pollen and nectar).

They are increasingly used as a prophylactic to prevent pests rather than eradicate them once a problem has occurred. As a result of their extensive use, these substances are found in all environmental media including soil, water and air.

The metabolites of neonics and fipronil (the compounds which they break down into) are often as or more toxic than the active ingredients to non-target organisms

Environmental contamination by both parent and metabolites are able to persist and build up via a number of pathways.

These include dust generated during drilling of dressed seeds; build-up of concentrations after repeated application in arable soils and soil water; run-off into surface and ground waters; uptake of pesticides by non-target plants via their roots followed by translocation to the whole of the plant; dust and spray drift deposition on leaves; and wind- and animal-mediated dispersal of contaminated pollen and nectar from treated plants.

Persistence in soils, waterways and non-target plants is variable but can be long; for example, the half-lives of neonicotinoids in soils can exceed 1,000 days. Similarly, they can persist in woody plants for periods exceeding 1 year.

This increases their toxicity effects and makes them more damaging to non-target species. Breakdown results in toxic metabolites, though concentrations of these in the environment are rarely measured (Bonmatin et al. 2014).

Breakdown of the effect on species

Neonicotinoids and fipronil operate by disrupting neural transmission in the central nervous system of organisms.

Neonicotinoids bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, whereas fipronil inhibits the GABA receptor. Both pesticides produce lethal and a wide range of sublethal adverse impacts on invertebrates but also some vertebrates (Simon-Delso et al. 2014; Gibbons et al. 2014)

Most notable is the very high affinity with which neonicotinoid insecticides agonistically bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) such that even low-dose exposure over extended periods of time can culminate into substantial effects.

Even long term exposure at low, non-lethal levels can be harmful. Infograph analysis of the current data available for the effects of neonicotinoids on a range of taxonomic groups.

Showing the route and potential of exposure; the eco-toxicological effects on the individuals, populations and communities; and what ecosystem services are impacted.

The analysis found that the most affected groups of species were terrestrial invertebrates such as earthworms which are exposed at high levels via soil and plants, medium levels via surface water and leaching from plants and low levels via air.

Both individuals and populations can be adversely affected at even low levels and by acute exposure. This makes them highly vulnerable to the levels of neonics associated with agricultural use.

The next most affected group is insect pollinators such as bees and butterflies which are exposed to high contamination through air and plants and medium exposure levels through water.

Honeybees have been at the forefront of concern about neonics and fipronil to date and limited actions have been taken, for example by the EU Commission, but manufacturers of these neurotoxicants have refuted any claims of harm.

In reviewing all the available literature rather than simply comparing one report with another, the WIA has found that field-realistic concentrations of neonics adversely affect individual navigation, learning, food collection, longevity, resistance to disease and fecundity of bees.

For bumblebees, irrefutable colony-level effects have been found, with exposed colonies growing more slowly and producing significantly fewer queens. Both individuals and populations can be adversely affected by low or acute exposure making them highly vulnerable.

Then aquatic invertebrates such as freshwater snails and water fleas which are vulnerable to low and acute exposure and can be affected at the individual, population and community levels.

While vertebrate animals are generally less susceptible, bird populations are at risk from eating crop seeds treated with systemic insecticides, and reptile numbers have declined due to depletion of their insect prey.

Microbes were found to be affected after high levels of or prolonged exposure. Samples taken in water from around the world have been found to exceed ecotoxicological limits on a regular basis.

In addition to contaminating non-target species through direct exposure (e.g. insects consuming nectar from treated plants), the chemicals are also found in varying concentrations outside intentionally treated areas.

The water solubility of neonics mean that they leach and run-off easily and have been found to contaminate much wider areas leading to both chronic and acute exposure of organisms, including in riparian zones, estuarine and coastal marine systems.

Current Use

Neonicotinoids have become the most widely used group of insecticides globally, with a global market share now estimated at around 40% and sales of over US $2.63 billion in 2011.

This combination of persistence (over months or years) and solubility in water has led to large-scale contamination of, and the potential for build-up in, soils and sediments (ppb-ppm range), waterways (ground and surface waters in the ppt-ppb range) and treated and non-treated vegetation (ppb-ppm range).

Screening of these matrices for pesticides and their metabolites has not been done in a systematic and appropriate way in order to identify both the long-term exposure to low concentrations and the short-term erratic exposure to high concentrations.

However, where environmental samples have been screened, they were commonly found to contain mixtures of pesticides, including neonicotinoids or fipronil (with their toxic metabolites).

In addition, samples taken in ground and surface waters have been found to exceed limits based on regulatory ecological threshold values set in different countries in North America and Europe. The combination of prophylactic use, persistence, mobility, systemic properties and chronic toxicity is predicted to result in substantial impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

The body of evidence reviewed in this Worldwide Integrated Assessment indicates that the present scale of use of neonicotinoids and fipronil is not a sustainable pest management approach and compromises the actions of numerous stakeholders in maintaining and supporting biodiversity and subsequently the ecological functions and services the diverse organisms perform.

In modern agricultural settings, it is increasingly clear that insecticide treatments with neonicotinoids and fipronil—and most prominently its prophylactic applications—are incompatible with the original mindset that led to the development of the principles of integrated pest management (IPM).

Although IPM approaches have always included insecticide tools, there are other approaches that can be effectively incorporated with IPM giving chemicals the position of the last resort in the chain of preferred options that need be applied first.

Note that the current practice of seed treatment is the opposite: it applies chemicals as the first applied option instead of the last resort. Continued use can only accelerate global decline of important invertebrates and risk reduction in levels of diversity security and stability of ecosystem services.

Current legislation

Neonicotinoids have been subjected to various restrictions since their initial registration. In 1999, France banned imidacloprid as a seed dressing for sunflowers and in 2004 for corn after one-third of honeybees died after its use.

Germany and Italy followed suit in 2008 with clothianidin. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) issued reports in 2013 confirming that three of the five neonicotinoids approved for use in the European Commission (thiamethoxam, clothianidin and imidacloprid) present acute risks to honey bee survival.

A “high acute risk” to honey bees was identified from exposure via dust drip for authorised uses in cereals, cotton, maize and oilseed rape. A “high acute risk” was also identified for exposure to the residues in nectar and/or pollen for authorised uses in cotton, oilseed rape and sunflowers.

The EFSA also identified other risks and major data gaps in the studies previously undertaken such as the effect on other pollinators such as bumblebees. The European Commission, based on the findings of the EFSA, then restricted the sale and use of neonicotinoid insecticides, specifically products containing clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam.

This restriction entered into force on December 1, 2013 and will be reviewed within two years. The restriction applies to the use of neonicotinoids for seed treatment, soil application (granules) and foliar treatment on plants and cereals (with the exception of winter cereals) that are attractive to bees. 

The Precautionary Principle “When human activities may lead to morally unacceptable harm that is scientifically plausible but uncertain, actions shall be taken to avoid or diminish that harm” - Enshrined in the EU Commission Directive 1107/2009.

The European Commission did not invoke the Precautionary Principle when implementing the temporary suspension on neonicotinoids. The response was based on a sound, robust analysis of the science which led to a measured response.

Had the precautionary principle been considered, all uses of neonicotinoids would have been withdrawn due to the number of unknown risks that EFSA discovered during their analysis.

Going forward

The adequacy of the regulatory process in multiple countries for pesticide approval must be closely considered and be cognizant of past errors.

For example, other organochloride insecticides such as DDT were used all over the world before their persistence, bioaccumulation and disruptive impacts on ecosystem functioning were recognised, and they were subsequently banned in most countries.

Organophosphates have been largely withdrawn because of belated realisation that they posed great risks to human and wildlife health.

The systemic insecticides, neonicotinoids and fipronil, represent a new chapter in the apparent shortcomings of the regulatory pesticide review and approval process that do not fully consider the risks posed by large-scale applications of broad-spectrum insecticides.

There is an urgent need to reduce the use of these chemicals and to switch to sustainable methods of food production and pest control that do not further reduce global biodiversity and that do not undermine the ecosystem services upon which we all depend.

The authors strongly suggest that regulatory agencies apply more precautionary principles and further tighten regulations on neonicotinoids and fipronil and start planning for a global phase-out or at least start formulating plans for a strong reduction of the global scale of use.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Mohd Shubhi  /  16.10.14  /    /  No comments
McDonald Canada terpaksa membuat siasatan rapi apabila adanya aduan pelanggan yang mendakwa bahawa dia telah menemui seekor tikus mati di dalam kopi McDonald yang dibelinya.

Ron Morais singgah di sebuah kedai makanan segera McDonald untuk membeli secawan kopi ketika dalam perjalanannya untuk ke tempat kerja.
Tikus mati dijumpai dalam kopi McDonald

Ron Morais tanpa rasa apa-apa yang pelik minum sedikit demi sedikit sehinggalah dia dapati ada seekor tikus mati di dasar cawan kopinya. Rupanya dia mendapat lebih daripada sekadar secawa kopi di McDonald.

Agak pelik juga bagaimana dia tak ada rasa perbezaan atau berbau sesuatu yang tidak menyenangkan ketika menghirup kopinya itu. Namun begitu, saksi dari kalnagan rakan-rakan sekerjanya mengesahkan kebenaran laporan yang dibuat oleh Ron Morais.

McDonald Kanada siasat laporan tikus dalam kopi

Memandangkan kejadian tikus mati dijumpa dalam kopi McDonald itu adalah satu dakwaan yang amat serius, McDonald terpaksa membuat satu kenyataan rasmi terhadap isu berkenaan.

Berikut kenyataan rasmi McDonald Kanada:

Food safety and quality are a top priority for McDonald’s Canada and all of our restaurants are held to high industry standards.

We have strict policies and procedures in place to ensure our guests receive the highest quality product when they visit our restaurants. We take allegations involving cleanliness and sanitation very seriously.

Upon learning of this situation, the local franchisee immediately began an investigation, including working closely with the local public health authority who conducted an inspection this morning following receiving a complaint.

Both the local health authority and an independent inspection by a pest control company of the interior and exterior today found no evidence of any pest issues in the building. We are continuing to investigate this isolated incident and have reached out to the customer to obtain the product sample. 

Until such time as we are able to collect all the necessary facts and laboratory results to conclude a full review, it would be inappropriate for us to comment further. Similarly, we would also caution against jumping to conclusions until more details are available.

Untuk mengetahui laporan lanjut berkenaan masalah tikus mati dalam cawan kopi McDonald ini, anda boleh baca laporannya di sini.

Sunday, October 12, 2014

Mohd Shubhi  /  12.10.14  /  ,   /  No comments


Situasi kejadian wabak penyakit virus Ebola (Ebola virus disease; EVD) yang melanda beberapa buah negara di Afrika Barat masih dipantau secara berterusan oleh Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM).

Situasi tersebut masih belum menunjukkan tanda-tanda untuk reda. Beberapa kes telah mula dilaporkan di luar Afrika seperti kes import pertama di Amerika Syarikat yang dilaporkan pada 24 September 2014 dan terkini pada 6 Oktober 2014 di Sepanyol melibatkan seorang anggota kesihatan. 

Sehubungan itu, KKM akan terus memperkukuhkan tahap kesiapsiagaan dan respon bagi menghadapi sebarang kemungkinan penularan penyakit EVD ke dalam negara.
KKM menghadapi potensi penularan Ebola

Fahami dengan jelas kes PUI EVD

Adalah amat penting semua fasiliti kesihatan kerajaan dan swasta yang terlibat dalam pengurusan kes jangkitan EVD memahami dengan jelas definisi kes PUI (Person Under Investigation) EVD atau disyaki EVD yang digunakan.

Ini adalah untuk memastikan pengamal perubatan dapat mengenalpasti kes PUI EVD, merujuk kes disyaki ke hospital yang dikenalpasti untuk pemeriksaan dan rawatan selanjutnya.

Langkah-langkah pencegahan dan kawalan sewajarnya adalah penting bagi mencegah sebarang penularan kes EVD dalam negara. Definisi kes PUI-EVD yang digunakan melibatkan kriteria dari aspek klinikal dan epidemiologikal.

Dari aspek klinikal

Ia meliputi pengesanan gejala demam dengan gejala tambahan seperti sakit kepala, sakit otot, muntah, cirit birit, sakit perut atau pendarahan.

Aspek epidemiologikal

Iaitu sejarah risiko pendedahan sepanjang tempoh 21 hari sebelum individu terbabit mula bergejala, seperti berikut:

  1. Mempunyai kontak langsung dengan cairan badan atau mayat individu lain yang diketahui menghidap EVD atau disyaki menjangkiti penyakit tersebut
  2. Mempunyai sejarah perjalanan atau merupakan masyarakat dari tempat yang melaporkan penularan jangkitan EVD yang aktif
  3. Terlibat dalam mengendalikan secara langsung kelawar atau sebarang jenis haiwan lain yang berpotensi menyebabkan jangkitan di kawasan endemik EVD.

Kes definisi ini digunakan untuk mengenalpasti PUI EVD (disyaki EVD) tidak hanya terhad kepada warga Afrika tetapi juga warganegara Malaysia atau warganegara lain yang mempunyai sejarah tinggal, bekerja atau melawat ke negara dijangkiti.

Negara terjejas jangkitan Ebola

Buat masa ini negara-negara yang paling terjejas dengan jangkitan (senarai negara terlibat akan disemak dari semasa ke semasa berdasarkan laporan daripada pihak WHO) adalah:-

  1. Guinea
  2. Liberia
  3. Sierra Leone
  4. Nigeria

Hospital rujukan kes PUI-EVD

KKM telah mengenalpasti sebanyak 21 buah hospital dari seluruh negara untuk menerima rujukan kes PUI-EVD untuk tujuan pengurusan awal dan pengesahan jangkitan.

Bagi kes yang disahkan positif jangkitan EVD melalui ujian makmal pula, akan dirawat di tiga (3) buah hospital khas yang dikenalpasti iaitu

  1. Hospital Sungai Buloh bagi Semenanjung Malaysia
  2. Hospital Queen Elizabeth Kota Kinabalu Sabah dan 
  3. Hospital Umum Kuching Sarawak

Sebanyak 20 makmal di hospital dari seluruh negara telah dikenalpasti untuk menjalankan ujian rutin bagi pengurusan kes PUI-EVD.

Manakala sebanyak tiga (3) makmal yang boleh menjalankan ujian pengesanan EVD iaitu

  1. Institut Penyelidikan Perubatan (IMR)
  2. Makmal Kesihatan Awam Kebangsaan Sungai Buloh
  3. Makmal Kesihatan Awam Kota Kinabalu

Simulasi persediaan hadapi Ebola

KKM juga sentiasa menilai status kesiapsiagaan dan respons dari semasa ke semasa dengan mengadakan latihan simulasi di pelbagai peringkat KKM di mana buat masa ini empat (4) sesi latihan simulasi telah diadakan dan terkini latihan simulasi EVD yang dianjurkan oleh pihak Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) peringkat Western Pacific Regional Office pada 8 Oktober 2014.

KKM mempertingkatkan kerjasama rapat dengan berbagai kementerian dan agensi yang berkaitan (multi-sectoral collaboration) dalam usaha mencegah penularan penyakit EVD ke dalam negara.

Terkini pada 8 Oktober 2014 satu mesyuarat interagensi telah diadakan yang dipengerusikan oleh YB Menteri Kesihatan Malaysia bagi menerangkan situasi semasa wabak EVD dan peranan yang boleh dimainkan oleh setiap agensi yang berkaitan bagi membantu KKM dalam mencegah kemungkinan jangkitan dan penularan EVD di Malaysia.

Sekian dan terima kasih.

Datuk Dr Noor Hisham Abdullah
Ketua Pengarah Kesihatan Malaysia
12 Oktober 2014 sumber

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